Job description

Judges uphold the law by analysing and interpreting all the evidence presented in a court of law. Along with the jury, a judge ensures that justice is served by dictating a fair verdict and determining a sentence relevant to the crime. A judge can also act as a referee in litigation, render a decision in legal quandaries and rule on questions of the law.


    • Apply the law objectively to ensure every complainant and defendant has a fair trial
    • Preside over hearings and review the information presented to enforce the law
    • Listen to witness testimony and understand allegations presented by the prosecution
    • Rule on motions, admissibility of evidence and exceptions during legal proceedings
    • Research, confirm and analyse laws, policies and precedent decisions to make a correct ruling
    • Evaluate available information in public and personal records to determine liability
    • Direct courtroom activities and procedures based on your understanding of the case
    • Prepare and compose legal documents and subpoenas for formal hearings
    • Manage oaths to all legal participants in the courtroom
    • Provide explanations to both claimants and defendants on rules of the courtroom
    • Instruct the jury with information pertaining to legal proceedings

Skills and qualities

Critical reasoning
Conflict resolution
Reading comprehension
Critical thinking

Job outlook

Projected growth
The projected growth rate of employment in the US from 2018 to 2028, based on data collected through the BLS Employment Projections (EP) programme. The national average growth rate for all professions is 5%.


New jobs
The number of jobs projected to become available in the US between 2018 and 2028, based on data collected through the BLS Employment Projections (EP) programme.


Automation risk
The probability of computerisation, based on data published in ‘The Future of Employment’, a 2013 working paper by Carl Benedikt Frey and Michael Osborne.


Career progression

The aim for most judges is to become Chief Justice, the highest-ranking member of a court or tribunal. However, there are other career opportunities for judges, such as politician, author or professor. For the most part, a judge will preside over the same post for 10, 20 or 30 years.

Working conditions

Average hours

40h/ week

Typical schedule

Full Time

Nights and weekends occasionally

As a judge, you can expect to work a 40-hour week during regular business hours. But, depending on what type of law you specialise in, you could anticipate an entirely different schedule.

Across the country, there are many jurisdictions that still maintain night courts which concentrate on preliminary matters of criminal proceedings, such as arraignments and bail hearings, and typically take place from 6pm to midnight. It is rare for the justice system to take place on a weekend unless otherwise specified.

You will primarily work in a courtroom setting or in an office. There are also times whereby a judge will sit in a room to mediate arguments, from divorce cases to slip-and-fall accidents.


Bottom 10%




Top 10%


Annual salary estimates are based on percentile wage data collected through the Occupational Employment Statistics (OES) survey of US workers.

Qualifications and training

Education level


Juris Doctor degree

Study time

7 years

To become a judge, you will need to possess both an undergraduate degree and a Juris Doctor (JD) degree. Your bachelor’s degree should focus on history, economics, business or political science, which takes four years. After this, you will need to enroll in a law school that is approved by the American Bar Association (ABA). This takes about three years to complete.

Once you have earned your JD, it is mandatory to apply for admission to the bar and pass a bar exam. Based on your jurisdiction, you may also be required to apply for licensing to practise law.

For judges, they will be offered training by the ABA, the Federal Judicial Center, the National Judicial College and the National Center for State Courts (NCSC).

Last Updated: Wednesday, November 2, 2022

Perfect career wave

Search for jobs

Find judge vacancies near you